BAKING AGENT WITHOUT YEASTS : PHOSPHATES
Phosphates are the raw materials used in almost all foods obtained from the reaction of phosphoric acid with various salts. Basically they work as a buffer (pH regulator) and are therefore used to stabilize the structure of foods. Some phosphates prevent the retention of moisture in powdered foods, while some phosphates (especially in the meat sector) increase the water holding capacity. In pastry, unleavened pastry, which we can define as chemical baking, plays a role in volume gain.
If we look at the bakery in a little more detail, phosphates are acids; in the reaction which produce carbon dioxide gas. This reaction is briefly,
Acid + Base + Energy (heat) = Carbondioxide + Water
The generally preferred phosphate is Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate. The base may be Sodium or Ammonium Bicarbonate. It is necessary to know the ratio of acid and base to ensure the full efficiency of the reaction and not to use excess raw material. The neutralization value of sodium acid pyrophosphate, known as SAPP, is 72. On the other hand, the neutralization value of sodium bicarbonate used as base is 100. To achieve 100% neutralization in this case,
72 x SAPP dosage = 100 x Sodium bicarbonate dosage
equation of above is needed. It means one unit sodium bicarbonate neutralize around 1.4 unit SAPP.
However, the SAPP variety is different for each bakery product. SAPP 28 is the most common type in Turkey but it is not proper for the products calles as french patisserie like cupcake, muffin, etc. It is recommended to use different SAPP types with different reaction speeds for those products. More detailed information, samples and other requests, please contact us.